Se il tappo sa di tappo ……

“Se un tappo sa di tappo, il vino sa di tappo; se un tappo sa di vino, il vino sa di vino”. Era quasi un dogma che ha accompagnato per anni la professione.

Oggi, in vero, lo scenario correlato al riconoscimento o alla percezione del cosiddetto sapore di tappo è cambiato del tutto. C’è la consapevolezza, perlomeno tra gli addetti, che occorre fare bene differenza tra veri e falsi sapori. La casistica è ampia, sarebbe opportuno parlare di odori e sapori riconducibili al tappo. Infatti, non riguarda solo il sughero, ma investe altri elementi in un’incredibile confusione di percezioni sensoriali. Districarsi, capire, prevenire, curare non è semplice.

Occorre distinguere tra soglia di percezione, ovvero il valore minimo in cui l’assaggiatore percepisce qualche sensazione, dalla soglia di riconoscimento in cui invece identifica il composto. Se non indicato diversamente la soglia di percezione che qui indicherò va considerata in soluzione acquosa e in nanogrammi/litro.

SommAdvice_6_11Veri e falsi odori

Da oltre 100 anni si studia il cosiddetto sapore di tappo. Inizialmente si riteneva correlato unicamente al sughero difettoso in foresta o in sugherificio: all’estero lo correlavano alla cosiddetta macchia gialla, una malattia del sughero causata da muffe, mentre ricercatori italiani dagli anni ‘50 del secolo scorso indicavano nella presenza di un parassita, l’Armillaria Mellea, un fungo che si sviluppa alla base della quercia del sughero. Oggi la chimica ha fatto notevoli progressi e molti autori si sono cimentati nella valutazione sensoriale dei vini affetti da “vero o falso sapore di tappo” o “sapori riconducibili al tappo”.

La classifica dei vari odori

Tricloroanisolo, noto come TCA, è l’insidioso e pericoloso composto maggiormente responsabile del vero odore di tappo. Oggi si ritengono responsabili di tale anomalia anche numerosi microrganismi presenti sia in foresta che durante le operazioni di lavorazione e stoccaggio del sughero: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Candida, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhodococcus e Streptomyces. Detti microrganismi, per complessi meccanismi, non completamente conosciuti, quando incontrano nel lungo percorso della filiera dalla foresta alla cantina un qualsiasi composto a base di cloro catalizzano la cosiddetta metilazione, legando pertanto il cloro ai fenoli e generando dapprima clorofenoli ed in seguito cloroanisoli e simili.

Spesso i clorofenoli derivano da pesticidi o trattamenti di conservazione del legno. Il che potrebbe significare che l’incidenza del sentore di tappo possa essere stata in aumento nelle ultime decadi. In presenza di tricloroanisolo il vino assume il profumo inconfondibile di sughero cattivo o segatura bagnata, meglio quotidiano ammuffito, cane bagnato o cantina umida. La soglia di percezione è molto bassa: 2-4 ngr/lt.

Tetracloroanisolo: Odore-sapore di muffa. La soglia di percezione è : 4 -11 ngr/lt

Pentacloroanisolo: Odore-sapore di muffa. La soglia di percezione è : 4000 ngr/lt.

Tribromoanisolo: un composto scoperto da poco che si forma se in cantina o in sugherificio ci sono vernici o altro a base di bromofenolo. Tale sostanza può contaminare direttamente il vino a partire da materiali diversi (capsule metalliche, legno contaminato, isolanti ignifughi). La soglia di percezione è molto bassa: 0,5 ngr/lt.

In questi anni nuovi composti attirano l’attenzione, spesso sono metaboliti prodotti da microrganismi, muffe in particolare, che attaccano, in condizioni particolari, vari composti del sughero. Detti metaboliti emigrano poi nel vino generando deviazioni organolettiche più o meno gravi.

In sintesi: Guaiacolo: odore di affumicato, di fenolico, di medicinale, la soglia di percezione è 20.000 ng/lt. Deriva da sughero affetto da macchia gialla, in presenza di streptomyces.

Geosmina: odore di terra, di muffa, di sporco, sottobosco. Si forma da uve botritizzate, da muffe, da actinomiceti presenti nel sughero.  Soglia di percezione: 5 ngr/lt

Pirazine: note erbacee, peperone verde, asparago, fagiolini. Derivano da uve acerbe, climi freddi e sughero trattato con anidride solforosa. La soglia di percezione è di 1-2 ng/lt

Ottanoli: fungo, metallico, muffa. La soglia di percezione è variabile a secondo dei vari composti. Ottenuti dai lipidi presenti nel sughero alla presenza di microrganismi Aspergillus e Penicillium

Metilisoborneolo: odore di fungo terroso. La soglia di percezione è di 30 ngr/lt E’ originato da actinomiceti.

Naftalene: se il composto è assorbito dalle plance di sughero grezzo può generare un odore simile a quello di tappo.

A livello generale possiamo dire che gli assaggiatori possono evidenziare sapori o profumi del vino riconducibili al tappo anche in due casi generici:

Sapori legnosi: l’uso di botti o barriques con doghe di legno mal stagionato, o attaccate da microrganismi, oppure troppo vecchie, l’utilizzo irrazionale in cantina di tannini di quercia, unitamente al ricorso alla pratica delle chips – trucioli di rovere ove permessi, possono dare al vino caratteri olfattivi confondibili con sapore di tappo.

Sapori accidentali: contaminazioni varie in cantina. Un caso classico sono le tubazioni non perfettamente pulite dopo un periodo di inattività, oppure filtri e riempitrici mal igienizzati, additivi e coadiuvanti difettosi. Pericolose sono le contaminazioni da parte del legno in cantina se trattato con clorofenoli.Aggiungiamo eventuali residui di lavaggi sterilizzanti dei sugheri, oppure cessioni di vario genere o trasformazione indotta da microrganismi da parte dei numerosi additivi utilizzati nel processo produttivo in sugherificio (collanti, lubrificanti, coloranti, ect) Ovviamente dette difettosità possono anche riscontrarsi nel vino allo stato sfuso. Citiamo infine, seppur siano molto rari, odori di stirene (da serbatoi in vetroresina), da poliuretano (collante usato per i tappi agglomerati) da eccesso di esposizione di bottiglie di spumante ai neon (gout de lumiere). Soprattutto in questi casi il confine tra “ sapore di tappo “ o difetto proprio del vino è molto labile.

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  73. I have seen loads of useful items on your website about computer systems. However, I have the judgment that laptop computers are still less than powerful more than enough to be a wise decision if you frequently do things that require lots of power, for example video modifying. But for internet surfing, word processing, and most other frequent computer functions they are just great, provided you cannot mind the tiny screen size. Thank you sharing your ideas.

  74. Great blog post. The things i would like to bring about is that personal computer memory should be purchased if your computer can’t cope with what you do along with it. One can mount two RAM boards containing 1GB each, for instance, but not one of 1GB and one of 2GB. One should make sure the maker’s documentation for own PC to be sure what type of memory is necessary.

  75. The things i have seen in terms of personal computer memory is there are requirements such as SDRAM, DDR and many others, that must fit in with the specs of the motherboard. If the personal computer’s motherboard is reasonably current and there are no operating system issues, improving the ram literally normally requires under an hour. It’s among the list of easiest laptop upgrade processes one can picture. Thanks for discussing your ideas.

  76. Things i have observed in terms of computer system memory is that often there are specs such as SDRAM, DDR etc, that must fit the specific features of the mother board. If the computer’s motherboard is fairly current and there are no main system issues, replacing the ram literally requires under an hour or so. It’s one of many easiest computer upgrade techniques one can think about. Thanks for expressing your ideas.

  77. I have really learned some new things as a result of your site. One other thing I would really like to say is that newer computer os’s tend to allow a lot more memory to get used, but they also demand more memory space simply to perform. If an individual’s computer can’t handle more memory along with the newest program requires that storage increase, it can be the time to buy a new Laptop or computer. Thanks

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  79. Great blog post. Things i would like to bring up is that pc memory has to be purchased when your computer still cannot cope with whatever you do by using it. One can deploy two RAM memory boards of 1GB each, for instance, but not one of 1GB and one of 2GB. One should always check the manufacturer’s documentation for the PC to ensure what type of memory is required.

  80. Thanks for the suggestions you have discussed here. Something important I would like to state is that laptop memory specifications generally rise along with other advancements in the technology. For instance, if new generations of processors are brought to the market, there is usually an equivalent increase in the size calls for of both the laptop or computer memory and also hard drive room. This is because the application operated by simply these processor chips will inevitably surge in power to benefit from the new technological innovation.

  81. Things i have seen in terms of computer memory is that often there are specific features such as SDRAM, DDR and so on, that must fit the specific features of the motherboard. If the computer’s motherboard is kind of current and there are no operating system issues, improving the memory literally normally requires under an hour or so. It’s one of several easiest laptop upgrade methods one can envision. Thanks for spreading your ideas.

  82. Some tips i have seen in terms of pc memory is there are requirements such as SDRAM, DDR etc, that must go with the specific features of the motherboard. If the pc’s motherboard is rather current while there are no operating-system issues, updating the memory literally normally requires under an hour or so. It’s on the list of easiest computer upgrade procedures one can consider. Thanks for sharing your ideas.

  83. I have figured out some new issues from your internet site about pcs. Another thing I have always thought is that computer systems have become something that each house must have for most reasons. They provide convenient ways to organize homes, pay bills, shop, study, listen to music and in some cases watch television shows. An innovative method to complete all of these tasks is to use a laptop. These computer systems are portable ones, small, potent and convenient.

  84. One thing I want to say is before obtaining more laptop memory, check out the machine in which it is installed. Should the machine is usually running Windows XP, for instance, the particular memory limit is 3.25GB. Adding greater than this would just constitute a waste. Make sure one’s mother board can handle the particular upgrade quantity, as well. Good blog post.

  85. Things i have seen in terms of computer system memory is there are specific features such as SDRAM, DDR and many others, that must match the requirements of the motherboard. If the computer’s motherboard is fairly current while there are no operating system issues, upgrading the storage space literally requires under 1 hour. It’s among the easiest computer system upgrade techniques one can consider. Thanks for discussing your ideas.

  86. Thanks for the guidelines you have discussed here. Something important I would like to talk about is that pc memory demands generally go up along with other advancements in the technology. For instance, as soon as new generations of processor chips are brought to the market, there’s usually a similar increase in the size calls for of both computer memory in addition to hard drive room. This is because the software program operated by means of these processor chips will inevitably boost in power to benefit from the new technology.

  87. Thanks for expressing your ideas listed here. The other factor is that each time a problem develops with a laptop motherboard, persons should not consider the risk with repairing this themselves because if it is not done correctly it can lead to permanent damage to the full laptop. It’s usually safe to approach a dealer of your laptop with the repair of the motherboard. They will have technicians who have an knowledge in dealing with laptop motherboard challenges and can have the right diagnosis and execute repairs.

  88. Interesting blog post. The things i would like to make contributions about is that computer system memory needs to be purchased if your computer is unable to cope with everything you do with it. One can install two RAM boards having 1GB each, in particular, but not certainly one of 1GB and one having 2GB. One should make sure the car maker’s documentation for the PC to make certain what type of memory space is required.

  89. Thanks for enabling me to gain new suggestions about desktops. I also contain the belief that certain of the best ways to keep your laptop computer in excellent condition is with a hard plastic-type material case, or perhaps shell, that matches over the top of the computer. These types of protective gear tend to be model distinct since they are manufactured to fit perfectly across the natural housing. You can buy them directly from owner, or via third party sources if they are designed for your laptop, however not every laptop could have a shell on the market. Yet again, thanks for your recommendations.

  90. I’ve learned new things via your website. One other thing I would really like to say is the fact newer computer system operating systems are inclined to allow a lot more memory to be utilized, but they as well demand more storage simply to function. If an individual’s computer is not able to handle a lot more memory plus the newest software package requires that ram increase, it usually is the time to shop for a new Laptop or computer. Thanks

  91. Thanks for the points you have provided here. Another thing I would like to say is that personal computer memory demands generally go up along with other developments in the technology. For instance, as soon as new generations of cpus are introduced to the market, there is certainly usually a corresponding increase in the shape demands of all personal computer memory plus hard drive room. This is because the software program operated by these cpus will inevitably boost in power to leverage the new know-how.

  92. Some tips i have observed in terms of laptop memory is that often there are features such as SDRAM, DDR and the like, that must fit in with the requirements of the motherboard. If the pc’s motherboard is rather current while there are no operating-system issues, upgrading the memory literally usually takes under 1 hour. It’s on the list of easiest personal computer upgrade treatments one can think about. Thanks for spreading your ideas.

  93. One thing I’d prefer to say is before purchasing more computer system memory, take a look at the machine in to which it would be installed. If your machine is usually running Windows XP, for instance, a memory ceiling is 3.25GB. Adding a lot more than this would just constitute some sort of waste. Make sure that one’s motherboard can handle an upgrade quantity, as well. Good blog post.

  94. Some tips i have seen in terms of computer system memory is the fact there are technical specs such as SDRAM, DDR etc, that must go with the specs of the mother board. If the pc’s motherboard is pretty current and there are no computer OS issues, improving the ram literally requires under one hour. It’s on the list of easiest pc upgrade techniques one can think about. Thanks for revealing your ideas.

  95. Some tips i have seen in terms of pc memory is that often there are specific features such as SDRAM, DDR or anything else, that must fit in with the specific features of the mother board. If the computer’s motherboard is pretty current while there are no computer OS issues, modernizing the memory space literally normally takes under one hour. It’s one of several easiest laptop or computer upgrade methods one can imagine. Thanks for sharing your ideas.

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